Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge) is a bridge and tunnel project connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macau in China. It is located in the Lingdingyang region of Guangdong Province, China, and is the southern ring section of the ring highway in the Pearl River Delta region.
Construction of the bridge began on December 15, 2009; on July 7, 2017, the main part of the bridge was completed; on February 6, 2018, the main body of the bridge was checked and accepted, and the joint trial operation of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao began on September 28 of the same year.
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge starts from the artificial island of Hong Kong Port near the Hong Kong International Airport in the east, crosses the sea area of Lingdingyang in the west, and connects Zhuhai and Macao artificial islands, terminating at the Hongwan Bay of Zhuhai; the bridge and tunnel length is 55 kilometers. The main bridge 29.6 km, Hong Kong port to Zhuao port 41.6 km; bridge deck for the two-way six-lane highway, designed speed of 100 km / h; the total investment of the project 126.9 billion yuan.
On October 23, 2018, the opening ceremony of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was held in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province. Xi Jinping attended the ceremony and announced the official opening of the bridge. The bridge was officially opened to traffic at 9: 00 a.m. on October 24, the same year. It will only take 45 minutes to drive from Hong Kong to Zhuhai and Macau.
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge.
Foreign name: Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge.
Other names: Lingdingyang Bridge, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Sea Crossing Bridge.
Opening time: 23 October 2018.
Type of bridge: cable-stayed bridge.
Bridge grade: extra large bridge.
Nature of bridge: highway bridge.
Length of line: 55km.
Pavement grade: highway.
Design speed: 100km / h.
Number of lanes: six lanes in both directions.
Regional location: Lingdingyang, Guangdong, china.
Address: Hong Kong international airport (start), Zhuhai Gongbei port (destination).
Ticket system Price: RMB 150 / time (minibus)
Hong Kong – Zhuhai.
The journey from Hong Kong to Zhuhai takes 70 minutes (HK $175, NT $700) before the opening of the Zhuzhou-Hong Kong-Macau Bridge, every two hours and every hour during rush hour. It takes 2-3 hours (HK $140, NT $560) and about 5 trips per day.
After the opening of the bridge, take the “Hong Kong-Zhuhai line” shuttle bus. The frequency of the shuttle bus will be about 5-10 minutes during peak hours, 15-30 minutes during non-peak hours and late at night, and 45 minutes to reach Zhuhai. For HK $65 to HK $75 (NT $259, 299), and buses are available 24 hours a day, it is not only convenient, but also saves money and shortens the travelling time.
Hong Kong – Macao.
And when Hong Kong goes to Macao, most people will choose to go by boat. The standard cabin is around HK $150,200 (NT $600,800). After the opening of the Zhuhai-Hong Kong-Macao Bridge, the shuttle bus ride on the “Hong Kong and Macao Line” will take about 45 minutes. But the price is about 2.5 times cheaper (about HK $654.75, NT $2593,299).
In addition, according to Hong Kong’s Ta Kung Pao, the Guangdong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Shuttle bus Co., Ltd., revealed that the bus will introduce the self-developed face recognition technology from the mainland, if the driver yawns three times within 20 seconds during the driving period, or looks left and right, and so on. A warning is issued to ensure that the driver is in good condition.
High speed boat
Port shuttle bus
|Departure||Tsim Sha Tsui, Sheung Wan, Tuen Mun||Kwun Tong, Yuan Fang, Prince||Hong Kong Port (Lantau Island)|
|destination||Outer Harbour Terminal, Taipa Ferry Pier||Macau, Cotai, major hotels||Macau port|
|Time required||1 hour||1 hour 45 minutes||About 45 minutes|
|cost||During the day: $171 Hong Kong dollars (about NT$684) |
Night: $211 Hong Kong dollars (about NT$844)
|During the day: $170 HKD (about NT$680) |
Night: $190 HKD (about NT$760)
|During the day: $65 Hong Kong dollars (about NT$260) |
Night: $70 Hong Kong dollars (about NT$280)
Since the automatic works of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, in addition to being overrun and delayed, there have been many serious casualties. Up to March 2017, 10 people were killed and more than 600 injured in the project, which was described as the “blood and tears bridge.”
The best of the project.
The opening ceremony of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was held on the morning of the 23rd in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province.
Located at the mouth of the Pearl River, the bridge, with a total length of 55 km, straddles the Pearl River estuary, connects Hong Kong to the east, and Zhuhai and Macao to the west. It is the longest sea-crossing bridge in the world and is known as the “Seven Wonders of the New World”, combining bridges, artificial islands and tunnels.
The project lasted 14 years from design to opening.
Ability to resist typhoons.
Recently, the “mangosteen” wind as high as 17, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge may not be able to withstand.
“Mangosteen” into the South China Sea, the wind has been weakened to 15, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge design and construction can resist a Category 16 typhoon.
The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge has been designed to a high standard and has passed wind tunnel tests with sufficient wind resistance and high safety factor.
Impact after commissioning:
The opening of the train has brought about transport convenience and the rapid development of the urban area of Tung Chung in Hong Kong. As a result, property prices have risen substantially.
Strengthening Macao’s already highly developed gaming industry, but tourists may not choose to stay in Macao, Macao’s hotel industry has a hidden negative impact.
Before its opening, the main bridge in the Pearl River Delta is Humen Bridge No. 2. Traffic jams are frequent and ease traffic congestion. It also facilitates Hong Kong businessmen’s access to the west bank of the Pearl River Delta for investment and trade development. The Bay area plus the estuary of the Great Rivers, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, also known as the “9 + 2” urban agglomeration, that is, nine coastal cities such as Guangzhou in Guangdong, plus Hong Kong and Macao, wants to build the fourth modernized Bay area in the world, and it is also the largest and strongest bay area.
The predecessor of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is the Lingdingyang Bridge in the original planning. In the early 1980s, although the land transport links between Hong Kong, Macao and the mainland of China continued to improve, the transport links between Hong Kong and the western bank of the Pearl River Delta were restricted by the barrier of the Lingdingyang. At the end of the 1990s,Due to the impact of the Asian financial crisis, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative region (HKSAR) considers it necessary to build a cross-sea link between Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao as soon as possible so as to give play to the advantages of Hong Kong and Macao and find new economic growth points.
- In 1983, Wu Ying-hsiang, a wealthy businessman in Hong Kong, proposed the construction of the Lingdingyang Bridge linking Hong Kong and Zhuhai.
- In 1989, the Zhuhai Municipal Government announced the Lingdingyang Bridge Project for the first time.
- In 1992, according to the planning of China’s expressway network, the coastal expressway joined the Lingdingyang Bridge.
- In 1998, the State Council of China formally approved the Lingdingyang Bridge Project.
- From 1999 to 2002, the Lingdingyang Bridge project was put on hold.
- In 2003, the Lingdingyang Bridge Project was replaced by the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Project.
- In 2004, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Prophase Coordination Group was set up to comprehensively start the pre-construction work of the Bridge.
- In 2005, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was confirmed to be a Y-shaped line connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao.
- In 2006, the EIA of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- In 2007, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was located at Shek San Shek Wan on Lantau Island, Pearl Point in Macau and Gongbei in Zhuhai.
- In 2008, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge project feasibility report passed the expert assessment.
- In 2009, China’s State Council approved the construction of a bridge between Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao.
- On December 15, 2009, the construction of the bridge between Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao began.
- On August 3, 2010, the reclamation project of Zhu-ao artificial Island at Zhuhai-Macao Bridge began.
- On May 15, 2011, the first large steel cylinder of the West artificial Island of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was installed smoothly.
- On September 22 of the same year, the first steel cylinder of the Eastern artificial Island of the Island Tunnel of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully installed.
- On December 7 of the same year, the main structure of the artificial island of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- On December 16, 2012, construction of the main piers of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge began.
- On May 7, 2013, the submerged tube of the first section of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge docked with the port of artificial island under water.
- On June 3 of the same year, the whole pier body of the first cap of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully installed in place.
- On June 21 of the same year, the first integral embedded pier and abutment of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully installed.
- On July 30 of the same year, the first 180-meter standard pipe section (E3) of the Island Tunnel Project successfully completed the floating installation task, realizing the first installation of large immersed pipes in the open sea and deep water conditions in China.
- On December 03 of the same year, the first composite beam of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully erected, and the construction of the bridge was carried out from the substructure to the superstructure.
- January 19, 2014, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge deep sea area of the first span of steel box girder erected successfully;
- On August 19 of the same year, Section 12 of the Island Tunnel of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully installed. The construction of the tunnel was pushed to the deepest point of the tunnel, with a total length of more than 2000 metres.
- On January 8, 2015, the main tower of Qingzhou Waterway Bridge, the main project of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, was capped successfully.
- On February 3 of the same year, the whole vertical hoisting of the tower on pier 206 of Kyushu Waterway Bridge of the Hong Kong-Zhuzhou-Macao Bridge was completed, which was the first time in China that the whole vertical hoisting method was used to install the upper tower; The first segment (J3 segment) of the “China knot” cable-stayed tower on pier 56 of Qingzhou Waterway Bridge was hoisted successfully.
- On the afternoon of 23 August of the same year, the first steel cable tower of the channel bridge of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, Pier 140, was successfully hoisted; on 6 September of the same year, all 208 offshore piers and abutments of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge were completed. The project has been transferred to the construction stage of steel box girder hoisting;
- On November 22 of the same year, the main part of the Jiuzhou Waterway Section of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- January 28, 2016, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Zhuhai connection line Hengqin North to Hongwan interworking section of the highway project was officially opened to traffic;
- On 28 February of the same year, the main part of the pier and artificial island of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- April 11 of the same year, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Qingzhou channel bridge through the closure;
- On June 2 of the same year, the last steel tower of the channel bridge of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed, and on June 29 of the same year, the main bridge of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was closed.
- On September 27 of the same year, the main bridge project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- December 28 of the same year, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Gongbei Tunnel through the first floor of the tunnel.
- On March 7, 2017, the installation of the last immersed tube of the Cross Harbour Tunnel, the E30 pipe section, was a complete success;
- March 26 of the same year, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge immersed tube tunnel final joint steel shell concrete pouring completed;
- April 10, the same year, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Zhuhai Link Gongbei Tunnel through;
- On April 29 of the same year, the deck of the Jianghai section of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, which was being paved with asphalt, was covered with a protective coating in red before the bitumen was laid.
- On May 2 of the same year, the final joint of the cross-harbour tunnel of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and Island Tunnel Project, a steel structural concrete preform weighing about 6000 tons, was completed in the main channel of the Lingdingyang Bay by hoisting and sinking and docking;
- On May 22 of the same year, the final joint of the Cross-Harbour Tunnel of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was successfully installed.
- June 6 of the same year, the construction of Qingzhou Waterway Bridge and China Bridge Tower;
- On July 7 of the same year, the main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- On December 28 of the same year, the deck of the main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed.
- On December 31 of the same year, the main part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was lit up, and 88 buses and engineering vehicles drove through the bridge. The bridge is basically ready to open to traffic.
- January 1, 2018, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge lights up the entire line, the main project has the conditions for opening to traffic;
- On February 6 of the same year, the main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was completed for acceptance.
- On February 21 of the same year, according to the “regulations on the use and Operation of the parking lot East of the Border Inspection Building of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge” promulgated by the Macao SAR Government, the parking lot east of the border inspection building of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was opened for use by foreign vehicles in the form of an appointment registration;
- On March 15 of the same year, with the approval of the State Council of China, the Macao Port Management area of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was formally transferred to the Macao Special Administrative region for use and exercised jurisdiction in accordance with the laws of the region;
- On 28 September of the same year, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was launched for trial operation in the three places of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao.
- On October 23 of the same year, the opening ceremony of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was held in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province. Chinese President Xi Jinping attended the ceremony and announced the official opening of the bridge.
- On October 24 of the same year, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was officially opened to traffic.
As of October 3, 2018, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is part of the southern ring section of the Pearl River Delta Ring Highway, numbered as National Highway G94.The eastern end of the bridge connects with the North Lantau Highway in Hong Kong, and the western end of the Bridge connects Zhuhai City with the western section of the Pearl River Delta Ring Highway. The whole section of the road is not open to the public for the time being. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge adopts the “co-location” customs clearance mode, in which the “co-inspection, one-time clearance” mode is adopted between Zhuhai and Macao. Drivers driving in the bridge to the right way, arrived at the Hong Kong and Macao port areas along the road automatically adjusted to the left way.
On August 26, 2018, the toll standards for Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge were announced: 150 yuan per train number for small passenger cars (private cars and taxis), 200 yuan per train number for large passenger cars (transit buses), 300 yuan per train number for shuttle buses, and 60 yuan per train number for ordinary goods vehicles. The number of container trucks shall be 115 yuan per trip, and the fee shall be settled in RMB. After the opening of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, the mode of co-location and co-location will be adopted.
October 19, 2018, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Shuttle bus Co., Ltd. officially announced the shuttle bus fares, Hong Kong-Zhuhai line and Hong Kong-Macao line the same price, calculated in renminbi; the day fare is 58 yuan, the time of the day at 06: 00-23: 59; The regular night fare is 63 yuan. Hours are 00: 00-05: 59 daily; 50% discount tickets are available for children, seniors, etc. During the initial period of operation, the frequency of vehicles will be 5-10 minutes during peak hours and 15-30 minutes at night, and the frequency will be adjusted depending on the passenger volume.Support multiple methods of payment, passengers can use RMB, WeChat or Alipay, UnionPay card or VISA/MASTER card to pay for tickets at Zhuhai Port, and children under 3 years old who do not occupy seats are free of charge; Those who can purchase the concessionary fares, including children under 12 years of age or less than 1.2 metres in height, the disabled and the elderly aged 65 and above, will enjoy a 50% discount on the regular fare.
On October 21, 2018, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Administration Bureau issued the “Guide to the passage of the Bridge,” which gives a detailed introduction to the bridge’s route, vehicle passage, customs clearance at the three ports, tolls, safety guarantees, and supporting services.
The multibillion-yuan bridge connects China’s two semi-autonomous cities, Hong Kong and Macau, through Zhuhai to China’s sprawling Pearl River Delta special economic zone. The length of the bridge broke the historical record, is the world’s longest sea bridge and tunnel system, the total length of 55 km, the length of the underwater tunnel is 6.7 km, far more than any bridge in the world;
According to Agence France-Presse on October 23, Chinese engineers said the bridge has greatly shortened the travel time between mainland China and Hong Kong and Macao, but not all people can drive on the bridge. Only those who are rich and have political connections can use the bridge.
The authorities will issue license plates to 10,000 privately owned vehicles with dual mainland-Hong Kong plates to enter the bridge, and Macau will only be able to obtain 300 similar plates. Applicants for such licences must meet stringent standards. For example, it must belong to a department of the Chinese government, must have paid taxes on the mainland, or must have donated RMB 5 million to charities in southern China.
The construction of the bridge is also controversial. Construction began in 2009 and has experienced several delays and legal challenges, as well as budget overruns. In addition, Chinese labour authorities have recorded nine deaths since 2011, but Hong Kong news media reports put the actual death toll at least 18.
In addition, environmentalists warn that the bridge will have a deadly negative impact on the ecological environment of the endangered Chinese White Dolphins in the Pearl River Delta.
Chinese state media reported that 420000 tons of steel were used to build the bridge, enough to build 60 Eiffel towers; more than 1 million cubic meters of cement were used; and the life of the bridge is expected to be as long as 120 years. And can withstand the strength of 340 km / h typhoon.
The Chinese government has not provided any figures on the total cost of building the bridge, but figures provided by the Hong Kong government show that the costs have ballooned in recent years, sparking a backlash from local tax payers.
The Chinese government is a world leader in the use of cameras and other technology to monitor people, and the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is no exception. Hong Kong media reported that Chinese authorities will install a number of special surveillance cameras on the bridge to monitor drivers driving on the bridge, and if drivers yawn too much while driving, they will immediately report to the relevant authorities; The drivers’ blood pressure will also be monitored.