How to treat the “cancer” caused by betel nut? What is the carcinogenic risk of betel nut?
As a stomatology student, I have been in Xiangtan, Hunan Province for more than ten years, I would like to say something.
When I was very young, I secretly tasted my father’s betel nut, and I am still impressed. As soon as the entrance is very rich sweet taste, chew two mouthfuls of a stimulating and indescribable taste on the roll. I quickly felt a sore throat, much like a cold coughing for a week. I immediately threw up the betel nut, but my throat had been sore for a long time.
When it comes to refreshing, it’s really refreshing.
Before going to college has been in Hunan, so used to the streets of betel nut advertising, used to every small shop has a very large betel nut counter, used to the road can be seen everywhere betel nut residue, but also used to most of the relatives around to eat betel nut.
Betel nut, a primary carcinogen, is abundant in Xiangtan, Hunan Province. It has been confirmed to have a high intensity correlation with oral cancer, and has been associated with a variety of other oral diseases.
I began to explain to my relatives and friends how terrible betel nut was, and the reaction was just to turn a deaf ear, nod, say thank you, and turn downstairs and buy two more bags of betel nut.
Then in the fifth year, when I was in the mucous membrane department, I suddenly became a “divine doctor.” Because chewing betel nut can easily lead to submucous fibrous changes, people will not be able to open their mouths.
During that time, I only need to listen to the sound to see a doctor, hear the familiar Hunan dialect, do not have to look, you know that it is eating betel nut caused by submucous fiber-like changes.
Every day there are several such patients, they say very painful, very uncomfortable, do not speak clearly, the treatment is submucosal injection of glucocorticoid, needle into the hard mucosa, many people tremble with pain.
The most impressive is a young man in his early twenties, can open the mouth gap is only about a centimeter, has been unable to speak clearly, the job has been lost. He said he had only eaten betel nut for half a year, and now he regretted it to death.
My father also ate many years of betel nut, one day found that some mouth can not open, quit, and then slowly improved. However, after so many years, when I came home for the Chinese New year this year, I touched his cheek, and it was still hard.
Later, I chose the maxillofacial oncology department to know how shocking some oral cancer patients are.
I saw the patient who came to see the doctor, a mouth, from the corner of the mouth to the lateral wall of the pharynx, full of cauliflower (typical squamous cell carcinoma) terrible protuberance and erosion, without a good mucosa.
I have seen an old man who has had more than a dozen surgery. the normal structure can no longer be seen.
I have also seen patients with a large area of tongue cancer metastasizing to the cervical lymph nodes. the treatment is to cut off the entire tongue of the lesion and then take the skin flap of the arm to fill it. since then, I have said goodbye to the taste, and I can no longer taste the ups and downs. And difficult to pronounce, difficult to eat.
What is even more unacceptable is that the skin flap hair on some people’s arms grows vigorously, and after transplantation, they have to come to our outpatient department to cut the black hair on their tongues at regular intervals.
There are countless similar patients. there are many patients with pharynx and buccal cancer who are too painful to eat and thin as a stick; patients with a large area of buccal cancer have a deformed face after surgery, and their eyes, nose and mouth are pulled out of shape. There were also patients who had more than half of their mandibles cut off, their faces collapsed, paralyzed and unable to eat.
When these patients ask about their medical history, a large part of them will say that they have eaten betel nut for three, five, ten, twenty years. Some patients even said that they could not open their mouths, but could not help but eat.
Do you really think “oral cancer” is just a noun, far from us?
During the internship, the oncology department’s beds were full every day, family members wiped tears in the hallway every day, and every day I heard patients tell me they regretted smoking, drinking and eating betel nuts.
My mother told me some time ago that a young man she knew had been diagnosed with oral cancer. he was the backbone of a family of five, a driver who needed to drive a long-distance bus to deliver goods, and often ate betel nuts to refresh himself.
Betel nut is a strong black industry chain. We all know that betel nut is a primary carcinogen, betel nut manufacturers still stand, betel nut advertising still appears in the streets and television stations; a lot of people are still chewing betel nut every day.
Eat betel nut to cause the risk of oral cancer, but also how to evaluate, how to prove, how to emphasize it? Piles of data, cases and popular science are there.
Do you know? Unlike tobacco, alcohol and drugs, betel nut addiction is actually very low, quit is not so difficult.
We just can’t wake up people who pretend to sleep, and we can’t stand in the way of making money.
Many studies have shown that chewing betel nut regularly can obviously increase the possibility of oral mucosal diseases and increase the incidence of oral cancer.
Among the countries and regions where betel nut is popular, the incidence rate of oral cancer is among the highest. India is the country that consumes the most betel nuts and has the highest incidence of oral cancer in the world. In Papua New Guinea, nearly 60% of the residents chew betel nuts. The incidence rate of oral cancer in the country ranks second in the world. The incidence of oral cancer is the third highest in the world in Solomon Island, and the proportion of residents chewing betel nuts is also high. In Taiwan, where betel nut chewing is prevalent, the incidence of oral cancer is also very high, with 27.4 cases of oral cancer per 100,000 male residents.
Some researchers found that 84.4% of betel nut chewers suffered from oral mucosal disease after analyzing 152 betel nut chewers and 137 betel nut non – chewers, far higher than 37.2% of betel nut non – chewers. Another group of studies showed that 66% of betel nut chewers had oral mucosal lesions, while only 1.5% of betel nut chewers had oral mucosal lesions, and more than 20% of betel nut chewers had precancerous lesions.
Besides the risk of oral cancer, chewing betel nut will also bring some other effects.
- Bad for teeth themselves: chewing betel nut for a long time will cause serious tooth wear.
- Bad for periodontal: betel nut juice mixed with lime is easy to form dental calculus, which not only affects the appearance but also affects periodontal health. Areca catechu fiber is coarse and hard, and may also stab gums or block teeth, causing gum compression and inflammation.
- It is not good for oral mucosa: it may cause mucosal lesions in mild cases, and oral cancer in severe cases.
- Bad for temporomandibular joint: long-term chewing will increase the weight of temporomandibular joint, causing joint rattle, pain and other symptoms. Severe cases can also lead to perforation of the articular disc.
- Impact on digestive system: Some components of Areca catechu will damage taste nerve and saliva secretion and affect digestive function. In addition, betel nut residue also stimulates the stomach wall, which can lead to gastric mucosa inflammation and even perforation.
In India, where betel nuts are popular, commercially produced betel nuts have been required to bear obvious warning labels, just as ” smoking is harmful to health.” In the United States, the transportation of betel nut between states has been forbidden since 1976. In Canada, betel nut products are directly banned from sale.
I found evidence that betel nut causes cancer:
Physical injury: When chewing betel nut, the friction of betel nut fiber will cause local trauma and mucosal injury of oral mucosa. Chewing betel nut for a long time will cause the damage to persist and form local chronic damage, thus causing chronic inflammation, enhanced oxidation and cell proliferation. Studies have shown that the frequency of exfoliation of oral mucosal cells in betel nut chewers is significantly increased.
Biotoxicity: Areca catechu contains a large amount of polyphenols and a variety of alkaloids, of which arecoline is the most important component, accounting for about 1% of the net weight of dry areca catechu. Arecoline can obviously promote the apoptosis of epithelial cells and interfere with the precipitation and degradation of extracellular matrix macromolecules ( collagen, elastin, etc. ). In addition, betel nut chewing together with the flower and lime also have certain genotoxicity. It is mainly due to the combined action of nitrosamine, clove polyphenol and active oxidant contained therein.
Co – promotion of cancer with tobacco: chewing betel nut alone can obviously promote the occurrence of oral cancer, while betel nut lovers who smoke at the same time have a higher incidence of oral cancer. Smoking is also a separate risk factor for oral cancer. Studies have shown that chewing betel nut containing tobacco can significantly increase the toxic substances in saliva, which has obvious destructive effect on cell DNA synthesis and other processes.
I hope I can help you!